Re: Implicit move constructor rules in c++0x still badly broken?

SG <>
Wed, 23 Feb 2011 15:37:53 CST
On 22 Feb., 20:43, Howard Hinnant wrote:

Here's Dave's code, completed and instrumented:

#include <iostream>

class Y
    int state_;
    enum {destructed = -2, moved_from, default_constructed};

    Y() : state_(default_constructed) {}
    Y(const Y& a) : state_(a.state_) {}
    Y& operator=(const Y& a) {state_ = a.state_; return *this;}
    Y(Y&& a) : state_(a.state_)
        a.state_ = moved_from;
    Y& operator=(Y&& a)
        state_ = a.state_;
        a.state_ = moved_from;
        return *this;
        state_ = destructed;
    explicit Y(int s) : state_(s) {}

    operator<<(std::ostream& os, const Y& a)
        switch (a.state_)
        case Y::destructed:
            os << "Y is destructed\n";
        case Y::moved_from:
            os << "Y is moved from\n";
        case Y::default_constructed:
            os << "Y is default constructed\n";
            os << "Y = " << a.state_ << '\n';
        return os;

    friend bool operator==(const Y& x, const Y& y)
        {return x.state_ == y.state_;}
    friend bool operator<(const Y& x, const Y& y)
        {return x.state_ < y.state_;}


class InvariantChecker
    Y* v_;

    InvariantChecker(const InvariantChecker&);
    InvariantChecker& operator=(const InvariantChecker&);
    explicit InvariantChecker() : v_(0) {}
    explicit InvariantChecker(Y& v) : v_(&v) {}
        if (v_)
            std::cout << *v_ << '\n';


f(bool choose)
    Y a(1), b(2);
    InvariantChecker xa(a), xb(b);

    // Incorrect comment follows:

    // The use of ?: guarantees that there will be no copy elision.
    // Instead, either a or b will be *moved* into the return value.
    return choose ? a : b;

Apparently, GCC won't move from a or b if you use this kind of return
expression. I'm not sure about what the standard draft says about this
case. But if you replace this line with

  if (choose) return a; else return b;

you will see the following output

 Y = 2
 Y is moved from

(tested using GCC 4.5.1)

    // xb and xa get destroyed here
    // b and a get destroyed thereafter

int main()
    Y y = f(true);

Using g++-4.4 with libc++ I get the identical output. To demonstrate
Dave's point I expect to see:

Y is moved from

Right. Change the above line and you will see this output.

On 23 Feb., 12:09, Dragan Milenkovic wrote:

BTW, I still have issues with "implicit move return". :-(

What is your solution? :-)

Let me stress again that I don't think forcing users to write

 return std::move(some_function_local_object);

instead of

 return some_function_local_object;

is a good idea. Here's why:
- The use of std::move() DISABLES any kind of RVO but RVO would be
 even better than a move construction of the return value.
- If RVO cannot be applied, a move construction is almost always
 the right thing to do (except in corner cases like the above one).
 I wouldn't want to be forced to write std::move all the time.


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