friend template function syntax

"James K. Lowden" <>
Sun, 5 Feb 2012 00:29:31 -0800 (PST)
How does one declare a friend function of a template class? The code
below dates from 1999 but gcc 4.1.3 says e.g.

    declaration of 'operator==' as non-function
    expected ';' before '<' token

Not my style. I would declare these functions as members, and use
constant references. But it looks valid to me and presumably was, once
upon a time. Cf.

Many thanks.


template <class C>
class IDCapsule {

  C *_c;


  IDCapsule() : _c(0) { }
  IDCapsule(const C *c) : _c((C *)c) { }

  operator bool() const { return _c != 0; }
  int hashcode() const { return (int)_c; }

  C &operator*() const { return *_c; }
  C *operator->() const { return _c; }
  operator C *() const { return _c; }
  C *obj() const { return _c; }

  friend bool operator==<>(IDCapsule<C>, IDCapsule<C>);
  friend bool operator==<>(IDCapsule<C>, IDCapsule<C>);
  friend bool operator==<>(IDCapsule<C>, C*);
  friend bool operator==<>(IDCapsule<C>, const C*);
  friend bool operator!=<>(IDCapsule<C>, IDCapsule<C>);
  friend bool operator!=<>(IDCapsule<C>, C*);
  friend bool operator!=<>(IDCapsule<C>, const C*);


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