Re: Refactoring discovery

From: (Stefan Ram)
26 Mar 2011 19:28:53 GMT
Leif Roar Moldskred <> writes:

And there's the right way (yes, my biases are showing, I know):
procedure Example
  (A : in Float;
   B : in out Float;
   C : out Float)

  Mmh, this reminds me of Ada.

  Here is the entry from my personal FAQ about ?multiple-return
  values? in Java:

      ?You can't return more than one value from a method.
      If you want to, you have to return a little array (unless
      one value is an int and the other is a Person!) or an object
      of some special little class made just for this purpose.

      When I was helping Bill Joy and Guy L. Steele Jr. by
      reviewing drafts of the original Java Language
      Specification, I was originally upset that there was no
      way to do this. So I set out to find a small example
      program that obviously demanded such a feature, to
      convince them that multiple value returns must be added.

      I was unable to come up with one, and I could see that
      Java's philosphy was to leave out things that are rarely
      used and not crucial, so finally didn't say anything.?

   Dan Weinreb's Weblog

  I have written several programs myself to show how multiple
  returns might be emulated in Java. Each approach has its
  advantages and disadvantages. I might add that, whenever I
  want to achieve something with Java, the lack of explicit
  multiple return values is not a problem for me.

  I assume a simple multiple-return task such as, in pseudocode:

operation "sumdiff"
in x, y;
out sum, difference;
{ sum = x + y; difference = x - y; }

  Solution with public fields:

class Sumdiff
{ public Sumdiff( final int x, final int y )
  { this.sum = x + y; this.difference = x - y; }
  public final int sum; public final int difference; }

public class Main
{ public static void main( final java.lang.String[] args )
  { final Sumdiff result = new Sumdiff( 4, 2 );
    ( result.sum + ", " + result.difference ); }}

6, 2

  If you do not like public fields, you might use getters
  as well.

  A ?processor object? can be created once and be used
  several times:

public class Main
{ public static void main( final java.lang.String[] args )
  { final Processor processor = new Processor();
    processor.set( 4, 2 );
    java.lang.System.out.println( processor.getSum() );
    java.lang.System.out.println( processor.getDifference() );
    processor.set( 8, 4 );
    java.lang.System.out.println( processor.getSum() );
    java.lang.System.out.println( processor.getDifference() ); }}

class Processor
{ public void set( final int x, final int y )
  { this.x = x; this.y = y; }
  public void calculateSumDiff()
  { this.sum = x + y; this.difference = x - y; }
  public java.lang.Integer getSum(){ return sum; }
  public java.lang.Integer getDifference(){ return difference; }
  int x; int y; int sum; int difference; }

  To avoid allocation overhead of a result object,
  the client might provide and reuse such an object:

class Result { public int x; public int y; }

class Server
{ void run( final Result result, final int x, final int y )
  { result.x = x + y; result.y = x - y; }}

public final class Main
{ private static Result result = new Result(); /* single allocation */
  public static void main( final java.lang.String argv[] )
  { Server server = new Server(); result, 1, 2 );
    java.lang.System.out.println( result.x );
    java.lang.System.out.println( result.y ); result, 3, 4 );
    java.lang.System.out.println( result.x );
    java.lang.System.out.println( result.y ); }}

  One can also emulate multiple returns via multiple
  arguments, but only when adopting a ?continuation passing
  style?. In the next example, the server ?returns? a pair
  of random numbers to the client, by calling back a method
  provided by the client.

interface Client { void continuation( int x, int y ); }

class Server
{ static java.util.Random rand = new java.util.Random();
  static void getPair( final Client client )
  { client.continuation( rand.nextInt( 11 ), rand.nextInt( 21 )); }}

class Example implements Client
{ public void continuation( final int x, final int y )
  { java.lang.System.out.println( x + ", " + y ); }
  public void main()
  { Server.getPair( this ); }}

public class Main
{ public static void main( final java.lang.String[] args )
  { new Example().main(); }}

  But, as said, I rarely ever (actually: never) have needed any
  of these multiple return value emulations in my own projects.

  Possibly this is because I already have accounted for the
  properties and limitations of Java when I was designing
  my classes. So I have designed them from the start in such
  a way that multiple return values are not needed.

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